How do urban areas modify climate?
Compared to rural surfaces, by day, urban surfaces are warmer, with a distinct SUHI. Urban–rural differences in evapotranspiration and convection efficiency are the main determinants of warming of the surface temperature in cities (11). Figure 1 The main processes leading to the urban heat island.
How does urban development cause climate change?
Urban pollution, coupled with increased global temperatures and other climate changes, will inevitably increase the risk of environmental degradation. Urban landscapes now need to accommodate ecological functions beyond providing spatial amenities for an environment of increasing urban density.
How does Urbanisation modify local climate of a city?
They increase atmospheric absorption and, hence, lead to elevated temperatures and often increased absolute humidity levels. Thus, the urban atmosphere experiences an enhanced greenhouse effect, over and above that occurring at the global scale and greater incoming long-wave radiation.
Why are urban areas more vulnerable to climate change?
The combination of population density with the economic assets and city services/systems (e.g. energy, water, waste, food and other) makes urban areas highly vulnerable to both current climate variability and to CC .
What is a urban climate?
The basic foundation for the urban climate can be related to both a change in physical characters of the landscape as compared to the rural surrounding but also the activities and processes taking place within the urban zone.
How does climate change affect urban areas Upsc?
As far as buildings are concerned, informal and traditional housing are the most vulnerable to storms and floods. Climate change related drought and floods are expected to foster rural to urban migration, increase overpopulation of cities and the proportion of poor and vulnerable people living in urban areas.
How does industrialization contribute to climate change?
The rapid population growth associated with industrialization is also a cause of global warming because of the increased levels of harmful emissions. … A larger population leads to increased demand for products, higher levels of production and consumption and, inevitably, elevated levels of greenhouse gases.
What are the climatic conditions of urban areas?
6). Since the urban area is at a higher elevation than the rural one and convection type shower rain falls more, urban area is wetter especially in spring and early summer months. For that reason, mean rainfall difference between rural and urban area is 4.8 mm, which means urban area is wetter.