The currently known Arctic species richness estimate includes close to 2,000 phytoplankton taxa, over 1,000 ice-associated protists, greater than 50 ice-associated metazoans, ~ 350 multicellular zooplankton species, over 4,500 benthic protozoans and invertebrates, at least 160 macro-algae, 243 fishes, 64 seabirds, and …
What is the biodiversity of the Arctic ocean?
Arctic marine ecosystems host a vast array of over 2,000 species of algae, tens of thousands of microbes and over 5,000 animal species, including unique apex species such as the polar bear Ursus maritimus and narwhal Monodon monoceros, commercially valuable fish species, large populations of migratory birds and marine …
How much biodiversity does the Arctic have?
In all, the Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbe species. This extensive biodiversity provides essential services and values to people.
Is biodiversity high or low in the Arctic?
In general, species richness is lower in the Arctic than in more southerly regions (Fig. 2.1). This is consistent with the general observation that biodiversity declines from the Equator to the poles (Rosenzweig 1995, Gaston & Blackburn 2000, Willig et al. 2003).
How much of the ocean is biodiversity?
Oceans are seriously under-protected: just over 1% of the ocean surface is designated as protected areas, compared to nearly 15% of protected-area coverage on land. Oceans cover 70% of our planet and represent over 95% of the biosphere.
How much biodiversity is in the Amazon rainforest?
As an ecosystem, the Amazon is one of the most biodiverse places on earth. Over 3 million species live in the rainforest, and over 2,500 tree species (or one-third of all tropical trees that exist on earth) help to create and sustain this vibrant ecosystem.
How does climate change affect biodiversity in the Arctic?
It is expected that climate change could shrink Arctic ecosystems on land, as northward moving changes are pressed against the boundary of the Arctic Ocean: the so called “Arctic squeeze.” As a result, Arctic terrestrial ecosystems may disappear in many places, or only survive in alpine or island refuges.
What ecosystem is the Arctic in?
The Arctic consists of taiga (or boreal forest) and tundra biomes, which also dominate very high elevations, even in the tropics. Sensitive ecosystems exist throughout the Arctic region, which are being impacted dramatically by global warming.
Which ecosystem has high biodiversity low biodiversity?
Estuarine areas (where rivers meet seas and oceans) have high biodiversity compared to other areas. Trophical rainforests are rich in terms of biodiversity. Arid and semiarid areas have low biodiversity. Deserts, for example, contain limited numbers of species.
What are the three kinds of biodiversity?
Usually three levels of biodiversity are discussed—genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity.
How many species are in Arctic?
Over 5,500 species of animals live in the Arctic.
Is the North Pole permanently frozen?
The North Pole is by definition the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. … While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice.
Why can’t trees grow in the Arctic?
The tundra biome features the northernmost limit where plants can grow on earth. … The existence of contiguous permafrost is thought to be one of the main reasons why there are no trees in the tundra, because, being permenantly frozen, permafrost has a tendency to hamper root development.
Which ocean has the most biodiversity?
It contains 45,389 km of coastline. There are 400 known fish species living in Arctic seas and adjacent waters, most living on or near the bottom. So, based on global fisheries and the overall biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems, the Pacific Ocean wins for most marine life.
Where is the most biodiversity found on Earth?
Brazil is the Earth’s biodiversity champion. Between the Amazon rainforest and Mata Atlantica forest, the woody savanna-like cerrado, the massive inland swamp known as the Pantanal, and a range of other terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, Brazil leads the world in plant and amphibian species counts.
Where is the largest amount of marine biodiversity found?
Coral reefs are believed by many to have the highest biodiversity of any ecosystem on the planet—even more than a tropical rainforest. Occupying less than one percent of the ocean floor, coral reefs are home to more than 25% of all marine life.