Ecological or correlational studies share the central characteristic of cross-sectional studies, since, regarding temporality, both explanatory and explained variables are collected simultaneously. They are known as “ecological” as investigations of this type use geographical areas to define the units of analysis.
What type of study uses cross-sectional?
Definition: A cross-sectional study is defined as a type of observational research that analyzes data of variables collected at one given point in time across a sample population or a pre-defined subset. This study type is also known as cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, or prevalence study.
What type of study is an ecological study?
An ecological study is an observational study defined by the level at which data are analysed, namely at the population or group level, rather than individual level. Ecological studies are often used to measure prevalence and incidence of disease, particularly when disease is rare.
What is a major limitation of an ecological study?
Limitations of ecological studies include: Measures of exposure are only a proxy based on the average in the population. … Potential for systematic differences between areas in the measurement of exposures. Lack of available data on confounding factors.
Does ecological study have a comparison group?
Neither a case study nor a case series would include a comparison group. Ecological Study – A study in which at least one variable, either an exposure or the outcome, is measured at the group (not individual) level.
What is cross-sectional study in epidemiology?
Cross-sectional studies measure the cause (exposure) and the effect (disease) at the same point in time. They compare the rates of diseases or symptoms of an exposed group with an unexposed group. Strictly speaking, the exposure information is ascertained simultaneously with the disease information.
Is a cross-sectional study observational?
Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. … We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies.
Are cross-sectional studies descriptive or analytical?
Cross-sectional studies may be either descriptive or analytical. Descriptive studies mostly aim to provide estimates of prevalence of disease, traits such as smoking behavior, people′s attitudes, knowledge or health behavior, whereas analytical studies aim to assess associations between different parameters.
Is an ecological study longitudinal?
Types of ecological studies
Longitudinal; A population is monitored to assess changes in disease over time. Again, confounding factors are often included in analysis. Migration; Data of migrant populations are collected and analysed.
What are the three types of epidemiological studies?
Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.
When would you use a cross-sectional study?
Unlike longitudinal studies, which look at a group of people over an extended period, cross-sectional studies are used to describe what is happening at the present moment. This type of research is frequently used to determine the prevailing characteristics in a population at a certain point in time.
Which type of bias is an ecologic study most prone to?
Most notably, these study designs are subject to the ecologic fallacy, which occurs by inferring that associations at the aggregate level are true at the individual level. Ecologic studies are also more often subject to confounding bias than are individual risk studies.
Why are ecological studies weak?
Compared to case control studies
In the case of the ecological study design, the obvious weakness is that data is based on groups rather than individuals. In other words, the ecological study provides group exposure and group response without knowing what any individual exposure-response was.
What are the differences between an ecological study and a cross-sectional study?
An ecological study is one where you take values of a variable for an entire population, the outcome from that population, and use that to draw inference. A cross-sectional study is where you look at individuals within a population at a single point in time.
Is there follow up in cross-sectional study?
The cross-sectional study is an observational study that assesses exposure and the outcome at one specific point in time in a sample population. There is no prospective or retrospective follow-up. Both the RR and the OR can be calculated to describe the association between the exposure and the outcome.
Are cross-sectional studies expensive?
Cross-sectional studies may involve special data collection, including questions about the past, but they often rely on data originally collected for other purposes. They are moderately expensive, and are not suitable for the study of rare diseases.